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Informe Epidemiológico do Sus

versão impressa ISSN 0104-1673


JR, Juan Clinton Llerena et al. A cross sectional study to investigate mental retardation and genetic disorders in schools of Rio de Janeiro. Inf. Epidemiol. Sus [online]. 2000, vol.9, n.4, pp.251-262. ISSN 0104-1673.

From 1994 to 1997, an itinerant medical research group initiated a genetic screening program in governmental funded schools for lhe mentally handicapped individuals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ln arder to identify clinical-epidemiological factors among The mentally retarded students, 673 pupils with mental retardation (MR) were examined and their families interviewed (compliance rate of 80%). A predominance of affected males (1,5M:1F - p<0,001) was observed. Familial history of MR was present in 25% of the interviewed families and 5,5% of lhe parents were consanguineous (p<0, 01). Advanced parental age at birth, including Down syndrome pupils, was observed. A significantly higher frequency of domicile labours (p<0,0001), especially for those over 20 years of age, was reported, and a low prevalence for caesarean sections (27,8%) compared to lhe general population in lhe state of Rio de Janeiro (46,84%; p<0,0001) was registered. Furthermore, 20,3% of pupils were hospitalised immediately after birth and 19,8% had a history of non-febrile convulsions. An etiological classification was attempted for each examined individual with lhe following results: 36,9% genetic, 21,1 % acquired and 41,9% idiopathic. Our results point out for lhe necessity of a review of medical practice essentially towards family planning and especially related to advalced maternal age pregnancies, where genetic counselling and prenatal diagnostic tests could be extended. Perinatal medical supervision should be intensified in arder to reduce complications related to labour and effective efforts should be put in practice to implement tertiary prevention for lhe handicapped individual as recommended by official governmental departments of lhe Brazilian Ministry of Health (1993).

Palavras-chave : Retardo Mental; Desordem Genética; Mental Retardation; Genetic Disorders.

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