SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.29 número1Indicadores de saúde bucal propostos pelo Ministério da Saúde para monitoramento e avaliação das ações no Sistema Único de Saúde: pesquisa documental, 2000-2017A declaração ORION: diretrizes para uma redação transparente de relatos de surtos e de estudos de intervenção de infecção nosocomial índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados




  • Não possue artigos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO


Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde

versão impressa ISSN 1679-4974versão On-line ISSN 2237-9622

Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde vol.29 no.1 Brasília  2020  Epub 10-Fev-2020 


Prevalence of self-reported chronic kidney disease in adults in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus: a cross-sectional population-based study, 2015*

Ana Wanda Guerra Barreto Marinho (orcid: 0000-0002-3291-1584)1  , Taís Freire Galvão (orcid: 0000-0003-2072-4834)2  , Marcus Tolentino Silva (orcid: 0000-0002-7186-9075)3 

1Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Faculdade de Medicina, Manaus, AM, Brazil

2Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Campinas, SP, Brazil

3Universidade de Sorocaba, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil



to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic kidney disease and associated factors in adults living in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus, Brazil.


this was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2015, with probabilistic sampling to select adults ≥18 years to be interviewed at home; factors associated with self-reported chronic kidney disease were investigated using hierarchical Poisson regression, to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), considering the complex sampling used.


a total of 4,001 people were interviewed - 52.8% were women, 72.2% were of brown skin color and 19.7% had hypertension; prevalence of self-reported chronic kidney disease was 2.1% (95%CI 1.6;2.5), it was positively associated with age (35-44 years old, PR=2.31, 95%CI 1.02;5.21; 45-59 years old, PR=2.52, 95%CI 1.10;5.75; ≥60 years old, PR=2.95, 95%CI 1.21;7.16) and having had strokes (PR=2.20, 95%CI 1.09;4.45).


two out of every 100 Manaus metropolitan region inhabitants self-reported chronic kidney disease and it was more frequent in older adults and those who had had strokes.

Keywords: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Adult; Self-Report; Prevalence; Population; Cross-Sectional Studies


Chronic kidney disease is spread worldwide and is estimated to be prevalent in up to 15% of the population, principally in low and middle-income countries.1,2 Early diagnosis of the disease is fundamental for therapeutic strategies to be effective in order to (i) prevent or delay its progression and (ii) for patients to begin renal replacement therapy - kidney dialysis or transplant.3 A systematic review of Brazilian studies published as at 2017, estimated that 3 out of every 100 Brazilians have the disease and that 5 out of every 10,000 are undergoing some form of dialysis.4

The main causes of chronic kidney disease are arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which predispose people who have these diseases to vascular complications, such as acute myocardial infarction and strokes.5 People with kidney diseases are at greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases at all stages of disease progression.6

Dialysis - treatment used for the final stage of chronic kidney disease progression - is a high cost procedure. In Brazil, this treatment is almost exclusively provided by the National Health System (SUS), either directly or indirectly.7 Having knowledge of chronic kidney disease prevalence is important for planning secondary prevention actions and promoting the population’s health.1 In the case of places with lower density of health professionals and health services, such as the state of Amazonas, such investigation takes on particular relevance.

The objective of this study was to estimate chronic kidney disease prevalence and associated factors among adults living in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.


This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in May and June 2015, with adults living in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus, comprised of eight municipalities - Careiro da Várzea, Iranduba, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru, Novo Airão, Presidente Figueiredo, Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus. According to the 2010 Demographic Census,8 its population is estimated as being 2.1 million residents, accounting for more than 60% of the inhabitants of the state of Amazonas. In 2013, the metropolitan region of Manaus had a human development index (HDI) of 0.720.9

This analysis is part of a research project intended to estimate the use of health supplies and health services in the region.10

Adults aged ≥18 years old were selected by means of probabilistic sampling in three stages.8 In the first stage, 400 primary tracts and 20 substitute tracts were randomly selected from the 2,647 urban census tracts in the metropolitan region of Manaus.8 In the second stage, systematic sampling was used to selected households: a number between 1 and 20 was drawn randomly to determine the first household, from then on every twentieth household was visited until ten interviews were completed for each census tract. All eligible dwellers present in each household were registered on the electronic interview device and one of them was randomly selected based on pre-defined sex and age quotas, based on official estimates.10

The sample size was calculated as being 4,001 adults, based on a conservative estimate of 50% health service use, a 95% confidence interval, 2% absolute accuracy, a design effect of 1.5 and 2,106,322 adults living in the region.8

Trained interviewers gathered the data using semi-structured questionnaires interviewing participants face-to-face. All variables were self-reported. The primary outcome was self-reported prevalence of chronic kidney disease, verified by asking the following question:

“Has a doctor ever diagnosed you as having chronic kidney disease?” (yes; no).

The remaining variables used in this analysis were:

  • a) Sociodemographic variables

  • - sex (male; female);

  • - age (in years);

  • - weight (in kg);

  • - height (in cm);

  • - level of schooling (higher education; high school education; elementary education; below elementary);

  • - race/skin color (white; black; yellow; brown; indigenous);

  • - economic classification, according to the Brazil Criterion economic classification (A, B, C or D/E; where A is the wealthiest level and D/E is the poorest);

  • - work status (formal; informal; retired; student/housewife; does not work);

  • - location of city of residence within the state (interior; capital);

  • b) Clinical variables

  • - self-reported chronic diseases - hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease, hypercholesterolemia and stroke (yes; no);

  • - state of health (very good; good; regular; poor; very poor);

  • - body mass index (BMI, in kilograms per square meter [kg/m2]: <25; 25-29.9; ≥30).

The data were described in absolute and relative frequencies. Kidney disease prevalence ratios (PR) according to the study’s variable categories and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated in bivariate analysis. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate the adjusted PRs, using a hierarchical model considering the distal and proximal outcome-related variables.11 The first block of questions was comprised of the social variables (economic classification; work status; schooling; city location). The second block contained the demographic variables (sex; age; race/skin color). The clinical variables (chronic diseases; state of health; BMI) comprised the third block of analysis. Each block was adjusted by the variables in that block and those of the level above. Statistic significance of variables with more than two categories was calculated using the Wald test, following adjusted analysis of each block. The analyses were performed using Stata 14.2 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA), taking into considered the sample’s complex design (svy command).

The research project was approved by the Federal University of Amazonas Research Ethics Committee (CEP/UFAN): Process No. 974.428, dated March 3rd 2015 (Certification of Submission for Ethical Appraisal [CAAE] No. 42203615.4.0000.5020). All participants signed a Free and Informed Consent form as a condition for being interviewed.


A total of 4,001 adults were included in the study (Table 1). Prevalence of self-reported kidney disease was 2.1% (95%CI 1.6;2.5). There was a slight predominance of women in the sample (52.8%), as well as predominance of young adults aged 25-34 years old (28.8%), people of brown skin color (72.1%; only 1.0% considered themselves to be indigenous), individuals belonging to social class C (35.6%), high school level education (47.5%) and working informally (28.8%). The majority of interviewees lived in Manaus (86.9%). The most reported chronic diseases were hypertension (19.7%) and diabetes mellitus (6.2%). More than half the respondents reported being in a good state of health (54.3%).

Table 1 - Characteristics of the included population (n=4,001) and prevalence of self-reported chronic kidney disease in the population of the Metropolitan Region of Manaus, Amazonas, 2015 

Variable n %a Prevalence % (95%CIb)
Male 1,888 47.2 1.7 (1.2;2.4)
Female 2,113 52.8 2.4 (1.8;3.1)
Age range (in years)
18-24 838 20.9 1.0 (0.5;1.9)
25-34 1,152 28.8 0.7 (0.3;1.4)
35-44 843 21.1 2.3 (1.5;3.6)
45-59 772 19.3 2.9 (2.0;4.4)
≥60 396 9.9 6.0 (4.0;8.8)
Race/skin color
White 636 15.9 1.1 (0.5;2.2)
Black 300 7.5 0.7 (0.2;2.6)
Yellow 138 3.5 2.9 (1.1;7.4)
Brown 2,886 72.1 2.4 (1.9;3.0)
Indigenous 41 1.0 2.4 (0.3;15.4)
Economic classification
A 629 15.7 0.9 (0.4;2.1)
B 862 21.5 1.0 (0.5;2.0)
C 1,423 35.6 2.2 (1.5;3.1)
D/E 1,087 27.2 3.4 (2.4;4.6)
Higher education 158 4.0 2.5 (0.9;6.4)
High school education 1,903 47.5 1.0 (0.6;1.6)
Elementary education 649 16.2 1.4 (0.7;2.6)
Below elementary 1,291 32.3 3.9 (3.0;5.1)
Work status
Formal 761 19.0 1.6 (0.9;2.7)
Informal 1,149 28.8 1.5 (1.0;2.4)
Retired 315 7.9 6.3 (4.1;9.6)
Student/housewife 1,199 29.9 2.3 (1.6;3.3)
Does not work 577 14.4 1.0 (0.5-2.3)
City of residence
Interior 522 13.1 1.4 (0.7;2.8)
Capital 3,479 86.9 2.2 (1.7;2.7)
Chronic diseases
Hypertension 787 19.7 4.1 (2.9;5.7)
Diabetes 245 6.2 5.7 (3.4;9.4)
Coronary disease 203 5.1 6.9 (4.1;11.3)
Hypercholesterolemia 596 14.9 5.0 (3.5;7.1)
Stroke 104 2.6 10.5 (5.9;18.0)
State of health
Very good 471 11.8 0.8 (0.3;2.2)
Good 2,175 54.3 1.4 (0.9;1.9)
Regular 1,108 27.6 2.9 (2.0;4.1)
Poor 193 4.9 6.2 (3.5;10.5)
Very poor 54 1.4 9.3 (3.9;20.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
<25 1,591 39.8 2.0 (1.4;2.8)
25-29.99 1,554 38.9 1.6 (1.1;2.3)
≥30 852 21.3 3.0 (2.1;4.4)

a) Percentage weighted by the complex sample used.

b) 95%CI: 95% confidence interval.

The crude analysis revealed that chronic kidney disease was significantly more frequent among older people, retired people and those who self-reported their race/skin color as being brown (Table 2). Positively associated clinical factors included hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease, hypercholesterolemia and strokes (p<0.001). Following adjustment, chronic kidney disease was positively associated with age (35-44 years old, PR=2.31, 95%CI 1.02;5.21; 45-59 years old, PR=2.52, 95%CI 1.10;5.75; and ≥60 years old, PR=2.95, 95%CI 1.21;7.16), being retired (PR=2.18, 95%CI 1.05;4.51) and having had a stroke (PR=2.20, 95%CI 1.09;4.45). When compared with those with higher education, people with high school education had significantly lower self-reported kidney disease prevalence (PR=0.34, 95%CI 0.11;0.99).

Table 2 - Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval for self-reported chronic kidney disease in the population (n=4,001) of the Metropolitan Region of Manaus, Amazonas, 2015 

Variable Crude PRa (95%CIb) P valuec Adjusted PRa (95%CIb) P valuec Blockd
Sex 0.112 0.668 2nd
Male 1.00 1.00
Female 1.43 (0.92;2.21) 1.05 (0.64;1.57)
Age range (in years) <0.001 0.004 2nd
18-24 1.00 1.00
25-34 0.72 (0.27;1.92) 0.72 (0.27;1.95)
35-44 2.46 (1.09;5.55) 2.31 (1.02;5.21)
45-59 3.08 (1.39;6.85) 2.52 (1.10;5.75)
≥60 6.24 (2.83;13.78) 2.95 (1.21;7.16)
Race/skin color 0.125 0.231 2nd
White 1.00 1.00
Black 0.61 (0.13;2.92) 0.51 (0.10;2.44)
Yellow 2.68 (0.79;9.04) 2.34 (0.70;7.76)
Brown 2.20 (1.02;4.77) 1.77 (0.81;3.91)
Indigenous 2.27 (0.29;18.01) 1.39 (0.20;9.57)
Economic classification 0.001 0.135 1st
A 1.00 1.00
B 1.11 (0.40;3.11) 1.15 (0.42;3.17)
C 2.30 (0.97;5.50) 2.11 (0.88;5.08)
D/E 3.59 (1.52;8.46) 2.29 (0.95;5.55)
Education <0.001 0.006 1st
Higher education 1.00 1.00
High school education 0.41 (0.14;1.18) 0.34 (0.11;0.99)
Elementary education 0.56 (0.18;1.81) 0.41 (0.13;1.27)
Below elementary 1.59 (0.58;4.35) 0.90 (0.32;2.57)
Work status <0.001 0.276 1st
Formal 1.00 1.00
Informal 0.98 (0.48;2.03) 0.75 (0.37;1.52)
Retired 4.04 (2.00;8.17) 2.18 (1.05;4.51)
Student/housewife 1.45 (0.74;2.84) 1.08 (0.55;2.13)
Does not work 0.66 (0.25;1.76) 0.56 (0.21;1.46)
City of residence 0.244 0.138 1st
Interior 1.00 1.00
Capital 1.54 (0.74;3.18) 1.72 (0.84;3.50)
Chronic diseasese
Hypertension 2.59 (1.68;4.01) <0.001 0.93 (0.53;1.65) 0.808 3rd
Diabetes 3.12 (1.78;5.46) <0.001 1.05 (0.59;1.87) 0.860 3rd
Coronary disease 3.84 (2.20;6.70) <0.001 1.46 (0.76;2.83) 0.255 3rd
Hypercholesterolemia 3.28 (2.11;5.09) <0.001 1.59 (0.91;2.76) 0.103 3rd
Stroke 5.75 (3.14;10.53) <0.001 2.20 (1.09;4.45) 0.029 3rd
State of health <0.001 0.175 3rd
Very good 1.00 1.00
Good 1.61 (0.57;4.54) 1.07 (0.37;3.11)
Regular 3.42 (1.22;9.63) 1.41 (0.47;4.27)
Poor 7.31 (2.39;22.41) 2.23 (0.66;7.51)
Very poor 10.99 (3.04;39.72) 2.71 (0.70;10.49)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.059 0.344 3rd
<25 1.00 1.00
25-29.9 0.79 (0.47;1.33) 0.76 (0.45;1.27)
≥30 1.51 (0.91;2.52) 1.12 (0.66;1.90)

a) PR: prevalence ratio.

b) 95%CI: 95% confidence interval.

c) Wald test.

d) Blocks included in the analysis (1st, 2nd, 3rd), adjusted by variables the same block and those of the level above.

e) Reference: absence of the disease.


Two in every 100 adults resident in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus reported having chronic kidney disease, corresponding to more them 40,000 people. The disease was positively associated with being older, being retired and having had a stroke. The prevalence rate found was slightly higher than the national rate, based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS). That survey, like our study, also did not find differences with regard to sex, schooling and race/skin color.11

The primary outcome of this analysis was based on self-reporting of a silent disease, capable of being confused with urologic diseases and leading to outcome classification errors. Using diagnostic tools based on laboratory analysis of serum creatinine and proteinuria testing to prove the existence of kidney disease would increase confidence in the results.12

Chronic kidney disease prevalence increased as age increased and was also more frequent among retired people. These results may reflect both the natural process of aging and renal senescence and also harm caused by comorbidities acquired during the course of life, such as diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension.13

According to this study, only strokes were associated with kidney disease. Strokes result above all from uncontrolled arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular problems, which are also risk factors for chronic kidney disease.5 Cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease are more frequent and more severe than among the population without kidney impairment; strokes undoubtedly contribute to the excess mortality risk found.1 Possibly due to low chronic kidney disease prevalence, association was not found between it and the majority of variables studied. Hypertension was the chronic disease most self-reported by the population studied and even so it was not found to be associated with kidney disease.

Association between chronic kidney disease and economic class was not significant. However, it is known that people belonging to lower social classes, in unequal societies, are more exposed to unfavorable chronic disease outcomes, thus revealing the social nature of the disease.14 Diagnosis and adequate treatment of the disease depend on access to health services, public policies on diabetes mellitus and hypertension control, and basic health education.

Organized Primary Health Care is essential for prevention and early control of chronic kidney disease.12 The main causes of the disease are hypertension and diabetes. Good control of these conditions in Primary Care inhibits the appearance of kidney disease and delays the start of dialysis,15,16 in addition to contributing to reducing cardiovascular complications, such as infarction and strokes, which can lead to death.15

The low kidney disease prevalence found in this study may reflect people’s lack of knowledge about their own state of health, given the difficulty in accessing the health system, as well as unmet demand for laboratory tests, such as analysis of serum creatinine and proteinuria testing to confirm kidney impairment.12,17

Manaus is the only city in the state of Amazonas to offer renal replacement therapy to people with kidney disease at an advanced stage.7 Brazilian Nephrology Society estimates suggest that prevalence of patients undergoing dialysis in Amazonas is 229 per 1 million inhabitants.7 These data are probably underestimated, in view of the geographically isolated characteristics of the populations distributed over the huge Northern region and the difficulty in accessing health services.10 Notwithstanding, people living in the metropolitan region studied would be precisely those with better access to health services and dialysis treatment in the state.

In conclusion, chronic kidney disease was self-reported by 2 in every 100 adults in the metropolitan region of Manaus. Relatively low awareness of the disease may reflect little access to health services, especially Primary Care. Representative studies using diagnostic tools are needed to obtain a better estimate of chronic kidney disease prevalence in the region.


1. Levin A, Tonelli M, Bonventre J, Coresh J, Donner JA, Fogo AB, et al. Global kidney health 2017 and beyond: a roadmap for closing gaps in care, research, and policy. Lancet [Internet]. 2017 Oct [cited 2020 Jan 10];390(10105):1888-917. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30788-2 [ Links ]

2. Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, et al. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease-a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One [Internet]. 2016 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];11(7):e0158765. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158765 [ Links ]

3. Ferraz FHRP, Rodrigues CIS, Gatto GC, Sá NMd. Differences and inequalities in relation to access to renal replacement therapy in the BRICS countries. Ciênc Saúde Colet [Internet]. 2017 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];22(7):2175-85. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1590/1413-81232017227.00662017 [ Links ]

4. Marinho AWGB, Penha AP, Silva MT, Galvão TF. Prevalência de doença renal crônica em adultos no Brasil: revisão sistemática da literatura. Cad Saúde Colet [Internet]. 2017 jul [citado 2020 jan 10];25(3):379-88. Disponível em: Disponível em: . doi: 10.1590/1414-462x201700030134 [ Links ]

5. Gansevoort RT, Correa-Rotter R, Hemmelgarn BR, Jafar TH, Heerspink HJL, Mann JF, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. Lancet [Internet]. 2013 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];382(9889):339-52. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60595-4 [ Links ]

6. Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O'Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, et al. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease - a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2016 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];11(7):e0158765. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158765 [ Links ]

7. Sesso RC, Lopes AA, Thomé FS, Lugon JR, Martins CT. Brazilian chronic dialysis survey 2016. J Bras Nefrol [Internet]. 2017 Jul-Set [cited 2020 Jan 10];39(3):261-6. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.5935/0101-2800.20170049 [ Links ]

8. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Censo demográfico de 2010. Amazonas [Internet]. Rio de Janiero: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; 2010 [citado 2020 jan 10]. Disponível em: Disponível em: ]

9. Programa das Nações Unidas para Desenvolvimento. Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil: PNUD [Internet]. [Sl]: PNUD; 2013 [citado 2020 jan 10]. Disponível em: Disponível em: ]

10. Silva MT, Galvao TF. Use of health services among adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region, Brazil: population-based survey, 2015. Epidemiol Serv Saúde [Internet]. 2017 Oct-Dec [cited 2020 Jan 10];26(4):725-34. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.5123/S1679-49742017000400005 [ Links ]

11. Moura L, Andrade SSCA, Malta DC, Pereira CA, Passos JEF. Prevalence of self-reported chronic kidney disease in Brazil: National Health Survey of 2013. Rev Bras Epidemiol [Internet]. 2015 Dec [cited 2020 Jan 10];18 Suppl 2:181-91. Availble from: Availble from: . doi: 10.1590/1980-5497201500060016 [ Links ]

12. Sá HO. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) prevention or the urgency of a national policy of screening and early treatment. Port J Nephrol Hypert [Internet]. 2013 Feb [cited 2020 Jan 10];27(1):9-12. Available from: Available from: ]

13. Eckardt KU, Coresh J, Devuyst O, Johnson RJ, Kottgen A, Levey AS, et al. Evolving importance of kidney disease: from subspecialty to global health burden. Lancet [Internet]. 2013 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];382(9887):158-69. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60439-0 [ Links ]

14. Tirapani LS, Pinheiro HS, Mansur HN, Oliveira Dd, Huaira RMNH, Huaira CC, et al. Impact of social vulnerability on the outcomes of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients in an interdisciplinary center. Braz J Nephrol [Internet]. 2015 Jan-Mar [cited 2020 Jan 10];37(1):19-26. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.5935/0101-2800.20150004 [ Links ]

15. Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, Li Z, Naicker S, Plattner B, et al. Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. Lancet [Internet]. 2013 Jul [cited 2020 Jan 10];382(9888):260-72. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60687-X [ Links ]

16. Stevens PE, Levin A. Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Ann intern Med [Internet]. 2013 Jun [cited 2020 Jan 10];158(11):825-30. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-11-201306040-00007 [ Links ]

17. Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, Levin A, Coresh J, Rossert J, et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney int [Internet]. 2005 Jun [cited 2020 Jan 10];67(6):2089-100. Available from: Available from: . doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00365.x [ Links ]

*Article derived from the Master’s Degree thesis entitled ‘Prevalence of self-reported kidney disease in adults in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus’, defended by Ana Wanda Guerra Barreto Marinho at the Federal University of Amazonas Pharmaceutical Sciences Postgraduate Program, in Manaus, AM, in 2017. This study received funding from the National Scientific and Technological Development Council/Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications (CNPq/MCTIC): Process No. 404990/2013-4 and Process No. 448093/2014-6.

Received: April 02, 2019; Accepted: October 23, 2019

Correspondence: Ana Wanda Guerra Barreto Marinho - Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Rua Afonso Pena, No. 1053, Centro, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Postcode: 69020-160 E-mail:

Authors’ Contributions

Silva MT and Galvão TF designed the study. Marinho AWGB, Silva MT and Galvão TF analyzed the data. Marinho AWGB and Galvão TF interpreted the data and drafted the first version of the manuscript. Marinho AWGB, Silva MT and Galvão TF critically reviewed the manuscript. All the authors approved the final version and are responsible for all aspects of the work, including the guarantee of its accuracy and integrity.

Associate editor: Bárbara Reis Santos -

Creative Commons License Este é um artigo publicado em acesso aberto sob uma licença Creative Commons